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Gangs of CrimeConfronting Gangs: Crime and Community. Los Angeles: livegamevslivetv.com Scholar. Decker, Scott H. (). Collective an Normative Features of Gang Violence. Spielbeschreibung. Gangs of Crime. Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika - es ist die Zeit der Prohibition. Die Gesellschaft ist korrupt, mächtige Mafiakartelle haben. Gangs of Crime – das ist der Pate der Strategie-Spiele. Hier wirst Du zum BigBoss Deines Districts und verschaffst Dir mit zwielichtigen Geschäften.
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Perfect storm of Covid, Brexit and red tape could stop Michael Gove says Northern Ireland companies will not need to fill out forms to export goods to Britain as George Osborne warns the break-up of the UK with united Ireland and Scottish independence is 'realistic' Just how serious a problem are street gangs in the UK?
To what extent are street gangs that gather together involved in organised crime within their localities or has the media exaggerated their criminality?
What exactly is a gang? Is it a group of friends who gather together but who also wear similar clothes simply because they happen to like that fashion?
Is it a gathering of more than ten youths or a group of five to ten? What number of people actually constitutes a gang? At what number does a group morph into a gang?
The author John Heale has studied British street gangs. In , the Centre for Social Justice CSJ described a typical gang member as being aged between 12 and 25; being predominantly male; living in large cities invariably near or in deprived areas; the majority aged 12 to 16 truant from school or aged from 16 to 25 had a history of truancy when at school; come from families where there is a history of unemployment or where there is just one parent; many have been in a family where there is no adult male role model.
The CSJ claimed that gangs in Glasgow and Liverpool were mainly made up of white youths while gang members in Manchester and London were mainly made up of black youths.
The August riots and looting in English cities were initially blamed by the media on local gang members contacting one another via mobile devices and effectively organising the riots.
While in some high profile court cases social networking sites were highlighted as a tool of contact between youths, it is now more accepted that many involved themselves in opportunistic crimes because they happened to be in the vicinity at the time rather than as a result of any sophisticated mode of communication.
The number of slaves today remains as high as 12 million  to 27 million. Today, crime is sometimes thought of as an urban phenomenon, but for most of human history it was the rural interfaces that encountered the majority of crimes bearing in mind the fact that for most of human history, rural areas were the vast majority of inhabited places.
For the most part, within a village, members kept crime at very low rates; however, outsiders such as pirates , highwaymen , and bandits attacked trade routes and roads, at times severely disrupting commerce, raising costs, insurance rates and prices to the consumer.
According to criminologist Paul Lunde, " Piracy and banditry were to the pre-industrial world what organized crime is to modern society.
If we take a global rather than a strictly domestic view, it becomes evident that even crime of the organized kind has a long if not a necessarily noble heritage.
The word 'thug' dates back to early 13th-century India , when Thugs , or gangs of criminals, roamed from town to town, looting and pillaging.
Smuggling and drug-trafficking rings are as old as the hills in Asia and Africa , and extant criminal organizations in Italy and Japan trace their histories back several centuries As Lunde states, " Barbarian conquerors, whether Vandals , Goths , the Norse , Turks or Mongols are not normally thought of as organized crime groups, yet they share many features associated with thriving criminal organizations.
They were for the most part non-ideological, predominantly ethnically based, used violence and intimidation, and adhered to their own codes of law.
Terrorism is linked to organized crime, but has political aims rather than solely financial ones, so there is overlap but separation between terrorism and organized crime.
Fences were part of the extensive network of accomplices in the criminal underground of Ming and Qing China. Their occupation entailed criminal activity, but as fences often acted as liaisons between the more respectable community to the underground criminals, they were seen as living a "precarious existence on the fringes of respectable society".
A fence worked alongside bandits , but in a different line of work. The network of criminal accomplices that was often acquired was essential to ensuring both the safety and the success of fences.
The path into the occupation of a fence stemmed, in a large degree, from necessity. As most fences came from the ranks of poorer people, they often took whatever work they could — both legal and illegal.
Like most bandits operated within their own community, fences also worked within their own town or village. For example, in some satellite areas of the capital, military troops lived within or close to the commoner population and they had the opportunity to hold illegal trades with commoners.
In areas like Baoding and Hejian , local peasants and community members not only purchased military livestock such as horses and cattle, but also helped to hide the "stolen livestock from military allured by the profits".
Local peasants and community members became fences and they hid criminal activities from officials in exchange of products or money from these soldiers.
Most fences were not individuals who only bought and sold stolen goods to make a living. The majority of fences had other occupations within the "polite" society and held a variety of official occupations.
These occupations included laborers, coolies, and peddlers. At times, the robbers themselves filled the role of fences, selling to people they met on the road.
This may actually have been preferable for robbers in certain circumstances, because they would not have to pay the fence a portion of the spoils.
Butchers were also prime receivers for stolen animals because of the simple fact that owners could no longer recognize their livestock once butchers slaughtered them.
Although the vast majority of the time, fences worked with physical stolen property, fences who also worked as itinerant barbers also sold information as a good.
Itinerant barbers often amassed important sources of information and news as they traveled, and sold significant pieces of information, often to criminals in search of places to hide or individuals to rob.
He or she not only sold items such as jewelry and clothing but was also involved in trafficking hostages that banditires kidnapped.
Women and children were the easiest and among the most common "objects" the fences sold. Most of the female hostages were sold to fences and then sold as prostitutes , wives, or concubines.
One example of human trafficking can be seen from Chen Akuei's gang who abducted a servant girl and sold her to Lin Baimao, who in turn sold her to a thirty parts of silver as wives.
Children were often sold as servants or entertainers, while young girls were often sold as prostitutes. Like merchants of honest goods, one of the most significant tools of a fence was their network of connections.
As they were the middlemen between robbers and clients, fences needed to form and maintain connections in both the "polite" society, as well as among criminals.
However, there were a few exceptions in which members of the so-called "well-respected" society became receivers and harborers. They not only help bandits to sell the stolen goods but also acted as agents of bandits to collect protection money from local merchants and residents.
These "part-time" fences with high social status used their connection with bandits to help themselves gain social capital as well as wealth.
It was extremely important to their occupation that fences maintained a positive relationship with their customers, especially their richer gentry clients.
When some members of the local elites joined the ranks of fences, they not only protect bandits to protect their business interests, they actively took down any potential threats to their illegal profiting, even government officials.
In the Zhejiang Province , the local elites not only got the provincial commissioner, Zhu Wan, dismissed from his office but also eventually "[drove] him to suicide".
It was also essential for them to maintain a relationship with bandits. However, it was just as true that bandits needed fences to make a living.
As a result, fences often held dominance in their relationship with bandits, and fences could take exploit their position, cheating the bandits by manipulating the prices they paid bandits for the stolen property.
Aside from simply buying and selling stolen goods, fences often played additional roles in the criminal underground of early China. Because of the high floating population in public places such as inns and tea houses, they often became ideal places for bandies and gangs to gather to exchange information and plan for their next crime.
Harborers, people who provided safe houses for criminals, often played the role of receiving stolen goods from their harbored criminals to sell to other customers.
Brothels themselves helped these bandits to hide and sell stolen goods because of the special Ming Law that exempted brothels from being held responsible "for the criminal actions of their clients.
Pawnshops were also often affiliated with fencing stolen goods. The owners or employees of such shops often paid cash for stolen goods at a price a great deal below market value to bandits, who were often desperate for money, and resold the goods to earn a profit.
In coastal regions, illegal trading with foreigners, as well as smuggling, became a huge concern for the government during the middle to late Ming era.
In order to prohibit this crime, the government passed a law in which illegal smugglers who traded with foreigners without the consent of the government would be punished with exile to the border for military service.
In areas where military troops were stationed, stealing and selling military property would result in a more severe punishment.
In the Jiaqing time, a case was recorded of stealing and selling military horses. The emperor himself gave direction that the thieves who stole the horses and the people who helped to sell the horses would be put on cangue and sent to labor in a border military camp.
In the salt mines, the penalty for workers who stole salt and people who sold the stolen salt was the most severe. Anyone who was arrested and found guilty of stealing and selling government salt was put to death.
During the Victorian era , criminals and gangs started to form organizations which would be collectively become London's criminal underworld.
Robb and Erin H. Structures are formal and rational with allocated tasks, limits on entrance, and influence the rules established for organizational maintenance and sustainability.
Albini saw organized criminal behavior as consisting of networks of patrons and clients, rather than rational hierarchies or secret societies. The networks are characterized by a loose system of power relations.
Each participant is interested in furthering his own welfare. Criminal entrepreneurs are the patrons and they exchange information with their clients in order to obtain their support.
Clients include members of gangs, local and national politicians, government officials and people engaged in legitimate business.
People in the network may not directly be part of the core criminal organization. Kinship is seen as the basis of organized crime rather than the structures Cressey had identified; this includes fictive godparental and affinitive ties as well as those based on blood relations, and it is the impersonal actions, not the status or affiliations of their members, that define the group.
Rules of conduct and behavioral aspects of power and networks and roles include the following:. Strong family ties are derived from the traditions of southern Italy, where family rather than the church or state is the basis of social order and morality.
One of the most important trends to emerge in criminological thinking about OC in recent years is the suggestion that it is not, in a formal sense, "organized" at all.
Evidence includes lack of centralized control, absence of formal lines of communication, fragmented organizational structure.
It is distinctively disorganized. For example, Seattle's crime network in the s and 80s consisted of groups of businessmen, politicians and of law enforcement officers.
They all had links to a national network via Meyer Lansky , who was powerful, but there was no evidence that Lansky or anyone else exercised centralized control over them.
While some crime involved well-known criminal hierarchies in the city, criminal activity was not subject to central management by these hierarchies nor by other controlling groups, nor were activities limited to a finite number of objectives.
The networks of criminals involved with the crimes did not exhibit organizational cohesion. Too much emphasis had been placed on the Mafia as controlling OC.
The Mafia were certainly powerful but they "were part of a heterogeneous underworld, a network characterized by complex webs of relationships.
Further studies showed neither bureaucracy nor kinship groups are the primary structure of organized crime, rather they were in partnerships or a series of joint business ventures.
All observed networks and a degree of persistence, and there may be utility in focusing on the identification of organizing roles of people and events rather than the group's structure.
International consensus on defining organized crime has become important since the s due its increased prevalence and impact. OC is " It is frequently accomplished through ruthless disregard of any law, including offenses against the person and frequently in connection with political corruption.
However, violence and corruption and the pursuit of multiple enterprises and continuity serve to form the essence of OC activity.
There are eleven characteristics from the European Commission and Europol pertinent to a working definition of organized crime. Six of those must be satisfied and the four in italics are mandatory.
Summarized, they are:. Others stress the importance of power, profit and perpetuity, defining organized criminal behavior as:. Definitions need to bring together its legal and social elements.
OC has widespread social, political and economic effects. It uses violence and corruption to achieve its ends: "OC when group primarily focused on illegal profits systematically commit crimes that adversely affect society and are capable of successfully shielding their activities, in particular by being willing to use physical violence or eliminate individuals by way of corruption.
It is a mistake to use the term "OC" as though it denotes a clear and well-defined phenomenon. The evidence regarding OC "shows a less well-organized, very diversified landscape of organizing criminals…the economic activities of these organizing criminals can be better described from the viewpoint of 'crime enterprises' than from a conceptually unclear frameworks such as 'OC'.
OC may appear in many forms at different times and in different places. Some espouse that all organized crime operates at an international level, though there is currently no international court capable of trying offenses resulting from such activities the International Criminal Court's remit extends only to dealing with people accused of offenses against humanity, e.
The understanding of organized crime has therefore progressed to combined internationalization and an understanding of social conflict into one of power, control, efficiency risk and utility, all within the context of organizational theory.
The accumulation of social, economic and political power  have sustained themselves as a core concerns of all criminal organizations:. Contemporary organized crime may be very different from traditional Mafia style, particularly in terms of the distribution and centralization of power, authority structures and the concept of 'control' over one's territory and organization.
There is a tendency away from centralization of power and reliance upon family ties towards a fragmentation of structures and informality of relationships in crime groups.
Organized crime most typically flourishes when a central government and civil society is disorganized, weak, absent or untrustworthy.
This may occur in a society facing periods of political, economic or social turmoil or transition, such as a change of government or a period of rapid economic development, particularly if the society lacks strong and established institutions and the rule of law.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the Revolutions of in Eastern Europe that saw the downfall of the Communist Bloc created a breeding ground for criminal organizations.
The newest growth sectors for organized crime are identity theft and online extortion. These activities are troubling because they discourage consumers from using the Internet for e-commerce.
E-commerce was supposed to level the playing ground between small and large businesses, but the growth of online organized crime is leading to the opposite effect; large businesses are able to afford more bandwidth to resist denial-of-service attacks and superior security.
Furthermore, organized crime using the Internet is much harder to trace down for the police even though they increasingly deploy cybercops since most police forces and law enforcement agencies operate within a local or national jurisdiction while the Internet makes it easier for criminal organizations to operate across such boundaries without detection.
In the past criminal organizations have naturally limited themselves by their need to expand, putting them in competition with each other.
This competition, often leading to violence, uses valuable resources such as manpower either killed or sent to prison , equipment and finances.
He used this position to eliminate competition and consolidate power within the city of Boston which led to the imprisonment of several senior organized crime figures including Gennaro Angiulo , underboss of the Patriarca crime family.
Infighting sometimes occurs within an organization, such as the Castellamarese war of —31 and the Boston Irish Mob Wars of the s and s. Today criminal organizations are increasingly working together, realizing that it is better to work in cooperation rather than in competition with each other once again, consolidating power.
This has led to the rise of global criminal organizations such as Mara Salvatrucha , 18th Street gang , and Barrio Azteca.
This rise in cooperation between criminal organizations has meant that law enforcement agencies are increasingly having to work together. Criminal psychology is defined as the study of the intentions, behaviors, and actions of a criminal or someone who allows themselves to participate in criminal behavior.
The goal is understand what is going on in the criminal's head and explain why they are doing what they are doing.
This varies depending on whether the person is facing the punishment for what they did, are roaming free, or if they are punishing themselves.
Criminal psychologists get called to court to explain the inside the mind of the criminal. This theory treats all individuals as rational operators, committing criminal acts after consideration of all associated risks detection and punishment compared with the rewards of crimes personal, financial etc.
The role of criminal organizations in lowering the perceptions of risk and increasing the likelihood of personal benefit is prioritized by this approach, with the organizations structure, purpose, and activity being indicative of the rational choices made by criminals and their organizers.
This theory sees criminal behavior as reflective of an individual, internal calculation  by the criminal that the benefits associated with offending whether financial or otherwise outweigh the perceived risks.
The benefits of participating in organized crime higher financial rewards, greater socioeconomic control and influence, protection of the family or significant others, perceived freedoms from 'oppressive' laws or norms contribute greatly to the psychology behind highly organized group offending.
However, since their stated aim and genesis is often ideological rather than commercial, they are distinct from mafia-type groups.
In several drug-producing or transit countries, drug traffickers have taken advantage of local corruption and lack of law enforcement to establish cartels turning in millions if not billions of dollars each year.
Sometimes if government enforcement is particularly poor, the cartels become quasi-paramilitary organizations. Italian immigrants to the United States in the early 19th century brought with them the underground government many Americans refer to as "Cosa Nostra" Our Thing along with its traditions and formal induction rituals along with the concepts and precepts of Omerta, which espouses honorable and manly behavior at all times and under all conditions,taking care your own problems and assisting your community, as well as non-cooperation with corrupt law enforcement and government officials.
Many Italian-Americans around this same time also formed various small-time gangs which gradually evolved into sophisticated crime syndicates, but the nationwide organization known as "Cosa Nostra" has traditionally dominated organized crime in America for several decades.
Although government crackdowns and a less-tightly knit Italian-American community have largely reduced its power, the American Mafia remains an active force in the underworld.
Organized crime in Italy , especially the south , has existed for hundreds of years and has given rise to a number of notorious organizations with their own traditions and subculture which have managed to infiltrate almost every part of Italian society.
Balkan organized crime gained prominence in the chaos following the communist era, notably the transition to capitalism and the wars in former Yugoslavia.
Although organized crime existed in the Soviet era, the gangs really gained in power and international reach during the transition to capitalism.
The term Russian Mafia , 'mafiya' or mob is a blanket and somewhat inaccurate term for the various organized crime groups that emerged in this period from the 15 former republics of the USSR and unlike their Italian counterparts does not mean members are necessarily of Russian ethnicity or uphold any ancient criminal traditions, although this is the case for some members.
See also Caucasus Emirate. See also Kenji Doihara's criminal activities and Aum Shinrikyo. The yakuza of Japan are similar to the Italian mafias in that they originated centuries ago and follow a rigid set of traditions, but have several aspects that make them unique, such as their full-body tattoos and their fairly open place in Japanese society.
Many yakuza groups are umbrella organizations, smaller gangs reporting to a larger crime syndicate. The term half-grey in Japanese refers to groups that commit crimes, yet are not considered to fit the description of criminal organisations referring to yakuza clans in this context.
The Triads is a popular name for a number of Chinese criminal secret societies, which have existed in various forms over the centuries see for example Tiandihui.
However, not all Chinese gangs fall into line with these traditional groups, as many non-traditional criminal organizations have formed, both in China and the Chinese diaspora.
As society enters the Information Age , certain individuals take advantage of easy flow of information over the Internet to commit online fraud or similar activities.
Often the hackers will form a network to better facilitate their activities. On occasion the hackers will be a part of a criminal gang involved in more 'blue collar crime', but this is unusual.
Smuggling is a behavior that has occurred ever since there were laws or a moral code that forbade access to a specific person or object.
At the core of any smuggling organization is the economic relationship between supply and demand. From the organization's point of view, the issues are what the consumer wants, and how much the consumer is willing to pay the smuggler or smuggling organization to obtain it.
Prisons are a natural meeting place for criminals, and for the purposes of protection from other inmates and business prisoners join gangs.
These gangs often develop a large influence outside the prison walls through their networks. Most prison gangs do more than offer simple protection for their members.
Most often, prison gangs are responsible for any drug, tobacco or alcohol handling inside correctional facilities.
Furthermore, many prison gangs involve themselves in prostitution, assaults, kidnappings and murders.